Superficial Thrombophlebitis. Phlebitis treatment information | Patient
May 15, Author: See Etiology and Workup. Although superficial thrombophlebitis usually occurs in the lower extremities, it also has been described in the penis and the breast Mondor disease. Superficial thrombophlebitis can also develop anywhere that medical interventions occur, such as in the arm or neck external jugular vein when intravenous IV catheters are used. See Etiology, Presentation, and Workup. Thrombosis and thrombophlebitis of the superficial venous system receive little attention in medical and surgical textbooks.
However, thrombophlebitis is encountered frequently and, although it is usually a benign, self-limiting disease, it can be recurrent and tenaciously persistent, at times causing significant incapacitation. See Epidemiology and Prognosis. When affecting the great saphenous vein also referred to as the greater or long saphenous veinthrombophlebitis will sometimes progress into the deep venous system.
Damage to deep venous valves leads to chronic deep venous insufficiency often referred to as postphlebitic syndromeas well as to recurrent pulmonary embolism PE and an increased risk of death. Superficial thrombophlebitis can occur spontaneously, especially in Thrombophlebitis im Test lower extremities in the great saphenous vein, or as a complication of medical or surgical interventions.
Although the etiology is frequently obscure, superficial venous thrombosis is most often associated with one of the components of the Virchow Thrombophlebitis im Test ie, Thrombophlebitis im Test, intimal damage which can result from trauma, infection, or inflammationstasis or turbulent flow, or changes in blood constituents presumably causing increased coagulability, Thrombophlebitis im Test.
In each type of superficial thrombophlebitis, Thrombophlebitis im Test, the condition presents as redness and tenderness along the course of the vein, Thrombophlebitis im Test, usually accompanied by swelling.
Bleeding also can occur at the site of a varicose vein. Although unusual, superficial thrombophlebitis may occur in the lesser saphenous vein, which empties into the popliteal vein. Superficial thrombophlebitis can also occur in the external jugular vein, if it has been used for an infusion site.
Superficial thrombophlebitis of the upper extremities usually occurs at infusion sites or sites of trauma. Superficial thrombophlebitis is a clinical diagnosis in which the clinician identifies tender and inflamed superficial veins. However, ruling out DVT in the clinical setting is difficult; further testing is often required to evaluate for this condition.
See Presentation and Workup. Treatment for superficial thrombophlebitis is aimed at patient comfort and at preventing superficial phlebitis from involving the deep veins. See Treatment and Medication. Superficial phlebitis with infection, such as phlebitis originating at an IV catheter site, is referred to as septic thrombophlebitisa clinical entity requiring diagnostic and Thrombophlebitis im Test approaches that are different Gips Preis Varizen those applied to sterile phlebitis.
Microscopic thrombosis is a normal part of the dynamic balance of hemostasis. Inthe German pathologist Virchow recognized that if this dynamic balance were altered by venous stasis or turbulence, abnormal coagulability, Thrombophlebitis im Test, or vessel wall injuries, then microthrombi could propagate to form macroscopic thrombi. In the absence Thrombophlebitis im Test a triggering event, neither venous stasis nor abnormal coagulability alone causes clinically important thrombosis, but vascular endothelial injury does reliably result in thrombus formation.
The initiating injury triggers an inflammatory response that results in immediate platelet adhesion at the injury site. Further platelet aggregation is mediated by thromboxane A2 TxA2 and by thrombin. A more detailed visual of the coagulation pathway can be seen in the image below. Platelet aggregation due to TxA2 is inhibited irreversibly by aspirin and reversibly by other Thrombophlebitis im Test anti-inflammatory drugs NSAIDs ; thrombin-mediated platelet aggregation, on the other hand, is not affected by NSAIDs, including aspirin.
This is why aspirin and other NSAIDs are somewhat effective in preventing arterial thrombosis, where platelet aggregation is mediated via TxA2, as seen in patients with stroke and myocardial infarction, but are not very effective in preventing venous thrombophlebitis, where it is believed that clot formation is more of a result of thrombin activation. The most important clinically identifiable risk factors for thrombophlebitis are a prior history of superficial phlebitis, DVT, and PE. Some common risk markers include recent surgery or pregnancy, Thrombophlebitis im Test, prolonged immobilization, and underlying malignancy.
Phlebitis also occurs in diseases associated with vasculitis, such as polyarteritis nodosa periarteritis nodosa and Buerger disease thromboangiitis obliterans. The increased likelihood of developing thrombophlebitis occurs through most of pregnancy and for approximately 6 weeks after delivery. This is partly due to increased platelet stickiness and partly due to reduced fibrinolytic activity.
The association between pregnancy and thrombophlebitis is of particular concern to women who carry the factor V Leiden or prothrombin Ca gene, because they already have a predisposition to clotting, which would also be exacerbated by pregnancy. High-dose estrogen therapy is another risk factor, Thrombophlebitis im Test. Case-controlled and cohort studies based on clinical signs and symptoms of thrombosis suggest that by taking high-estrogen oral contraceptives, a woman may increase her risk of thrombosis by a factor of times, though the absolute risk remains low.
Newer low-dose oral contraceptives are associated with a much lower risk of thrombophlebitis, though the absolute risk has not been well quantified. Superficial venous thrombosis following an injury usually occurs in an extremity, manifesting as a tender cord along the course of a vein juxtaposing the area of trauma, Thrombophlebitis im Test.
Ecchymosis may be present early in the disease, indicating extravasation of blood associated with injury to the vein; this may turn to brownish pigmentation over the vein as the inflammation resolves. Thrombophlebitis frequently occurs at the site of an IV infusion and is the result of irritating drugs, hypertonic solutions, or the intraluminal catheter or cannula itself, Thrombophlebitis im Test.
Thrombophlebitis im Test is by far the most common type of thrombophlebitis encountered. Usually, redness and pain signal its presence while the infusion is being given, Thrombophlebitis im Test, but thrombosis may manifest as a small lump days or weeks after the infusion apparatus has been removed.
It may take months to completely resolve. The features of iatrogenic form of traumatic chemical phlebitis may be deliberately produced by sclerotherapy Thrombophlebitis im Test the treatment of varicose veins. Superficial thrombophlebitis frequently occurs in varicose veins. It may extend up and down the saphenous vein or may remain confined to a cluster of tributary varicosities away from the main saphenous vein.
Although thrombophlebitis may follow trauma to a varix, it often Thrombophlebitis im Test in varicose veins without an antecedent cause. Thrombophlebitis in a varicose vein develops as a tender, hard knot and is frequently surrounded by erythema. At times, bleeding may occur as the reaction extends through the vein wall.
It frequently is Thrombophlebitis im Test in varicose veins surrounding venous stasis ulcers. Superficial thrombophlebitis along the course of the great saphenous vein is observed more often to progress to the deep system. Infection-related thrombophlebitis is associated with several different conditions, including a serious complication of intravascular cannulation and can be suspected in patients who have persistent bacteremia in the setting of appropriate antibiotic therapy. It also frequently is associated with septicemia.
Thrombophlebitis im TestDeTakats suggested that dormant infection in varicose veins was a factor in the development of thrombophlebitis occurring following operations or after injection treatments, Thrombophlebitis im Test, trauma, or exposure to radiation therapy. Altemeier et al suggested that the presence of L-forms and other atypical bacterial forms in the blood may play an important etiologic role in the disease and recommended administration of tetracycline.
Jadioux described migratory thrombophlebitis indetermining it to be an entity characterized by repeated thromboses developing in superficial veins at varying sites but occurring most commonly in the lower extremity.
Although numerous etiologic factors have been proposed for this condition, none have been confirmed. The association of carcinoma with migratory thrombophlebitis was first reported by Trousseau, in Sproul noted migratory thrombophlebitis to be especially prevalent with Thrombophlebitis im Test of the tail of the pancreas.
Mondor disease is a rare condition. Thrombophlebitis is usually located in the anterolateral aspect of the upper portion of the breast or in the region extending from the lower portion of the breast across the submammary fold toward the costal margin and the epigastrium.
A characteristic finding is a tender, Thrombophlebitis im Test, Thrombophlebitis im Test structure that may be best demonstrated by tensing the skin via elevation of the arm. The cause of Mondor disease is unknown, Thrombophlebitis im Test a search for malignancy is indicated. Mondor disease is more likely to occur after breast surgery, with the use of oral contraceptives, and with Thrombophlebitis im Test C deficiency.
Thrombophlebitis of the dorsal vein of the penis, generally caused by trauma or repetitive injury, is also referred to as Mondor disease, Thrombophlebitis im Test. In the author's experience, superficial thrombophlebitis most frequently occurs in the age group ranging from young adulthood to middle age.
However, Markovic et Thrombophlebitis im Test reported that a common risk factor is age older than 60 years, though fewer complications occur in this age group. As previously mentioned, pregnancy, puerperium, and high-dose estrogen therapy are recognized risk factors for phlebitis.
However, there are no intrinsic, sex-linked risks for the disease. The prognosis in superficial thrombophlebitis is usually good. Superficial phlebitis is rarely associated with PE, although it can Entfernung von Krampfadern Laser-Preise, particularly if the process extends into a deep Krampfadern Portal. However, Thrombophlebitis im Test, individuals with superficial venous thrombosis do not Thrombophlebitis im Test to have a great tendency to develop DVT.
In contrast, patients with DVT are frequently found to have superficial venous thrombosis. The patient should be told to expect the disease process to persist for weeks or longer. If Gele und Salben von Krampfadern occurs in the lower extremity in association with varicose veins, it has a high likelihood of recurrence unless excision is performed.
Because thrombophlebitis tends to recur if the vein has not been excised, instructing the patient in ways to prevent stasis in the vein is usually advisable. The use of elastic stockings may be indicated, especially if the patient plans to stand in an upright position for long periods. Slight elevation of the foot of the bed, avoidance of long periods of standing in an upright position, and avoidance of prolonged inactivity is recommended.
An unexpectedly high rate of pulmonary embolism in patients with superficial thrombophlebitis of the thigh. The veins in thromboangiitis obliterans: With particular reference to arteriovenous anastomosis as a cure for the condition.
Pathology, Diagnosis and Treatment. University of Nagoya Press; Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol. Vasculopathy related to cocaine adulterated with levamisole: A review of the literature. Oral contraceptives, hormone replacement therapy and thrombosis.
Skin necrosis and venous thrombosis from subcutaneous injection of charcoal lighter fluid naptha. Am J Emerg Med. Clinical practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of intravascular catheter-related infection: Am J Med Sci, Thrombophlebitis im Test.
Acute and recurrent thromboembolic disease: Carcinoma and venous thrombosis: Frequency of association of carcinoma in body or tail of pancreas with multiple venous thrombosis.
Nazir SS, Khan M. Thrombosis of the dorsal vein of the penis Mondor's Disease:
C Clinical test, R Research test, Early ultrasonographic finding of septic thrombophlebitis is the main indicator of central venous catheter removal to reduce.
Anonymously share your comment to help others. When I was six months pregnant with my now 38 year old son, my left leg had swollen to twice its Thrombophlebitis im Test size, Thrombophlebitis im Test, and I was in unbearable pain. I went to the doctor seven times, each time telling a doctor that I thought I had thrombophlebitis.
The first six doctors didn't take me seriously. One suggested I had an inguinal hernia. Another said the baby was pressing on a nerve in my uterus. Yet another told me pregnant ladies get swollen legs sometimes. He walked out when I asked why the other leg was perfectly fine. Finally I saw a doctor who listened to me. He then listened to my veins with a Doppler machine and headphones, and said I had thrombophlebitis in the left inguinal region.
I was in hospital, on IV heparin for four weeks. Because other anticoagulants cross the placenta, I had to take heparin for the rest of my pregnancy and throughout my four subsequent pregnancies for prophylaxis.
In those days, I was extremely active, and the leg improved rather quickly with the use of heparin and compression stockings. A few months ago, I started feeling extreme pain in my left calf, with noticeable swelling. It didn't improve with rest, elevation, and a heating pad. So I had it checked for a blood clot at the emergency room. There I Thrombophlebitis im Test out that I had numerous blood clots with phlebitis. I was in hospital for a week, and now, two months later, I'm still in unbearable pain whenever I lower my leg.
I'm on Coumadin, wearing compression stockings, and using a heating pad when elevating my leg. I'd say it's improved a little bit, but healing at age 60 takes a lot longer than it did at 22! One morning I woke up with soreness in my right leg in the knee area.
The next morning I woke up I was sore in both legs. I put up with the pain it was a burning sensation in the skin. I went to emergency after a week where an ultrasound confirmed thrombophlebitis. They gave me a six week course of Xarelto. It is most painful when standing, Thrombophlebitis im Test, only relief when lying. I am a 53 year old wife and grandmother that is on crutches full time. I did not have any kind of injury or IV. One night I developed what appeared to be a spider bite looking rash.
However, no skin had been broken. It was in the inside of my arm where one might place an IV. My Thrombophlebitis im Test were bright red rash, hot to the Thrombophlebitis im Test, swelling of my entire arm and a rock hard spot under the skin.
For 2 days I endured pain, but on day 3, I went to urgent care. A PA physician's assistant told me that it looked like cellulitisThrombophlebitis im Test, and gave me some seriously strong antibiotics. I Thrombophlebitis im Test home and looked up cellulitis online but what my rash looked like and the pictures I looked at were very different. I kept searching and found my rash online. Not cellulitis, but phlebitis.
Phlebitis und Thrombophlebitis der tiefen Venen I am on day 5 of antibiotics, and all I feel is a small amount of heat from rash, and a swollen vein, Thrombophlebitis im Test. Still painful but at least I can now move my arm and it can be touched. Still unsure what caused it. I was born inwith deep vein thrombosis in my left knee area, Thrombophlebitis im Test.
At age 6, Thrombophlebitis im Test, I had surgery for phlebitis which involved cutting around the knee cap area and folding that skin back, Thrombophlebitis im Test, thus allowing the doctor access to the large group of connected veins which pooled there under the knee cap area.
The surgery was a success. I've had normal growth in my leg some doctors warned I would not and have yet to develop arthritis from trauma to that knee. I have had 6 deep vein thromboses DVTs in my right leg and one in my lady parts after a tubal ligation 18 years ago. I now have been getting phlebitis. I take two blood thinners and am constantly at the doctor's. My doctor looked away after seeing my leg, Thrombophlebitis im Test.
I should not be dealing with all this. I move around all the time and I am not sedentary. It's so upsetting to see my once nice legs look beat up and almost bruised. I am looking for a solution for getting rid of the phlebitis. My veins are popped out, my knee has a Thrombophlebitis im Test in it and my ankle looks terrible, Thrombophlebitis im Test.
Whenever I have an IV line set up for anesthesia or medication sinceI have phlebitis. My hand and arm become very painful, red and tender with swelling and I also have a headache. Thrombophlebitis im Test always have to end up taking a course of antibiotics and anti-inflammatory medication. Deep vein thrombosis blood clot in the leg, DVT is a Viewer Comments are not a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment, Thrombophlebitis im Test.
Never delay or disregard seeking professional medical advice from your physician or other qualified health provider because of something you have read on eMedicineHealth. The opinions expressed in the comments section are of the author and the author alone. If you think you have a medical emergency, call your doctor or immediately. You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Like Us Follow Us. Phlebitis - Symptoms What were your phlebitis symptoms? Zaura, Female Patient Published: Terry, Male Patient Published: JG56, Female Patient Published: Lisa, Female Patient Published: RN, Female Patient Published: Must Read Articles Related to Phlebitis.
Blood Clots Blood is Thrombophlebitis im Test to clot to help repair a blood vessel that is injured. Clots or thrombi become a problem when they form inappropriately. There are a variety o Pulmonary Embolism A pulmonary embolism PE is a blood clot in the lung. The clot typically comes from other areas of the body and travels to the lung, Thrombophlebitis im Test, where it becomes lodged.
Phlebitis - Effective Treatment What treatment has been effective for your phlebitis? Phlebitis - Causes What caused your phlebitis? Viewer Comments are not a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Medical Dictionary Thrombophlebitis im Test A-Z List. Understand Immunotherapy Painful Knees? Share Your Story Anonymously share your comment to help others. August 04 When I was six months pregnant with my now 38 year old son, my left leg had swollen to twice its normal size, and I was in unbearable pain.
November 15 One morning I woke up with soreness in my right leg in the knee area. October 03 I am a 53 year old wife and grandmother that Thrombophlebitis im Test on crutches full time. May 19 I was born inwith deep vein thrombosis in my left knee area. May 16 I have had 6 deep vein thromboses DVTs in my right leg and one in my lady parts after a tubal ligation 18 years ago.
January 11 Whenever I have an IV Thrombophlebitis im Test set up for anesthesia or medication sinceI have phlebitis. View 3 Comments Share Your Story Viewer Comments are not a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment.
- Thrombophlebitis Füße
Superficial thrombophlebitis is inflammation of a vein just under the skin, usually in the leg. A small blood clot also commonly forms in the vein, but.
- Krampfadern in den Beinen zu Hause zu behandeln
Phlebitis and thrombosis of the lower extremity superficial veins (ie, superficial thrombophlebitis) is generally a benign, self-limited disorder; however, when the.
- die Behandlung von venösen Geschwüren, eitrige
View reviews from patients and their medical experiences and knowledge with Phlebitis - Symptoms. Share your comments to help others and address questions on symptoms.
- Krampfadern und Haare an den Beinen
Superficial thrombophlebitis occurs when a superficial vein (usually the long saphenous vein of the leg or its tributaries), becomes inflamed and the blood.
- aufsteigend Thrombophlebitis groß
Superficial thrombophlebitis occurs when a superficial vein (usually the long saphenous vein of the leg or its tributaries), becomes inflamed and the blood.