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Thrombophlebitis Licht es PYCNOGENOL: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD

Secondary hypertension or, less commonly, inessential hypertension is a type of hypertension which by definition is caused by an identifiable underlying primary cause. It has many different causes including endocrine diseaseskidney diseasesThrombophlebitis Licht es, and tumors. It also can Thrombophlebitis Licht es a side effect of many medications. Other well known causes include diseases of the kidney. This includes diseases such as polycystic kidney disease which is a cystic genetic disorder of the kidneysPKD ,which is characterized by the presence of multiple cysts hence, "polycystic" in both kidneyscan also damage the liverThrombophlebitis Licht es, pancreasand rarely, the heart and brain.

Hypertension can also be produced by diseases of the renal arteries supplying the kidney. This is known as renovascular hypertension ; it is thought that Thrombophlebitis Licht es perfusion of renal tissue due to stenosis of a main or branch renal artery activates the renin-angiotensin system.

Also, Thrombophlebitis Licht es, some renal tumors can cause hypertension. The differential diagnosis of a renal tumor in a young patient with hypertension includes Juxtaglomerular cell Thrombophlebitis Licht esWilms' tumorand renal cell carcinomaall of which may produce renin.

A variety of adrenal cortical abnormalities can cause hypertension, In primary aldosteronism there is a clear relationship between the aldosterone-induced sodium retention and the hypertension. Congenital adrenal hyperplasiaa group of autosomal recessive disorders of the enzymes responsible for steroid hormone production, can lead to secondary hypertension by creating atypically high levels of mineralocorticoid steroid hormones.

These mineralocorticoids cross-react with the aldosterone receptor, activating it and raising blood pressure. Yet another related disorder causing hypertension Behandlungsbehälter und Krampfadern glucocorticoid remediable aldosteronismwhich is an autosomal dominant disorder in which the increase in aldosterone secretion produced by ACTH is no longer transient, causing of primary hyperaldosteronismthe Gene mutated will result in an aldosterone synthase that is ACTH -sensitive, which is normally not, Thrombophlebitis Licht es.

Compare these effects to those seen in Conn's diseasean adrenocortical tumor which causes excess release of aldosterone, [28] that leads to hypertension, Thrombophlebitis Licht es. Another adrenal related cause is Cushing's syndrome which is a disorder caused by high levels of cortisol, Thrombophlebitis Licht es. Cortisol is a hormone secreted by the cortex of the adrenal glands. Cushing's syndrome can be caused by taking glucocorticoid drugs, or by tumors that produce cortisol or adrenocorticotropic hormone ACTH.

Neuroendocrine tumors are also a well known cause of secondary hypertension. Pheochromocytoma [35] most often located in the adrenal medulla Thrombophlebitis Licht es secretion of catecholamines such as epinephrine and norepinephrinecausing excessive stimulation of ebermin Salbe für venöse Geschwüre receptorswhich results in peripheral vasoconstriction and cardiac stimulation.

Depending on the severity of the increase in blood pressure, rebound hypertension may result in a hypertensive emergency. Rebound hypertension is avoided by gradually reducing the dose also known as "dose tapering"thereby giving the body enough time to adjust to reduction in dose. Medications commonly associated with rebound hypertension include centrally-acting antihypertensive agents, such as clonidine [50] and methyl-dopa. Other herbal or "natural products" which have been associated with hypertension include ma huangSt John's wortand licorice.

Follow-up and control with medication is therefore often necessary. Another common and under-recognized sign of hypertension is sleep apnea[54] [55] which is often best treated with nocturnal nasal continuous positive airway pressure CPAPbut other approaches include the Mandibular advancement splint MASUPPP, tonsillectomyadenoidectomyseptoplastyor weight loss. Another cause is an exceptionally rare neurological disease called Binswanger's diseasecausing dementia ; it is Thrombophlebitis Licht es rare form of multi-infarct dementiaand is one of the neurological syndromes associated with hypertension, Thrombophlebitis Licht es.

Because of the ubiquity of arsenic in ground water supplies and its effect on cardiovascular health, low dose arsenic poisoning should be inferred as a part of the pathogenesis of idiopathic hypertension. Idiopathic and essential are both somewhat synonymous with primary hypertension. Arsenic exposure has also many of the same signs of primary hypertension such as headachesomnolenceThrombophlebitis Licht es, [57] confusionproteinuria [58] visual disturbancesand nausea and vomiting [59], Thrombophlebitis Licht es.

Due to the role of intracellular potassium in regulation of cellular pressures related to sodium, establishing potassium balance has been shown to reverse hypertension.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology.

The Medical Clinics of North America. Der Internist in German. Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease. American Journal of Hypertension. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology. Annales d'endocrinologie in French. Canadian Journal of Emergency Medical Care. Journal of Clinical Hypertension. Vasc Health Risk Manag.

Therapeutic Advances in Cardiovascular Furatsilin zur Behandlung von venösen Ulzera. Nippon Rinsho in Japanese.

Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology. Endokrynologia Polska in Polish. A report of two cases". Arquivos Brasileiros de Endocrinologia e Metabologia in Portuguese. Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America. Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease, 7th ed. Elsevier-Saunders; New York, American Psychiatric Pub, Inc. Australian medicines handbook Australian Medicines Handbook Pty Ltd. The American Journal of Medicine.

Annals of Internal Medicine. Journal of Hypertension Supplement. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. Der Anaesthesist in German. The American Journal of Cardiology. Canadian Medical Association Journal. Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases. Rinsho Shinkeigaku in Japanese. Can Med Assoc J. Uses authors parameter link. Cardiovascular disease vessels I70—I99— Arteritis Aortitis Buerger's disease. Carotid artery stenosis Renal artery stenosis. Aortoiliac occlusive disease Degos disease Erythromelalgia Thrombophlebitis Licht es dysplasia Raynaud's phenomenon.

Arteriovenous fistula Arteriovenous malformation Telangiectasia Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia. Cherry hemangioma Halo nevus Spider angioma. Chronic venous insufficiency Chronic Krampfadern Behandlung von Radiowellen venous insufficiency Superior vena cava syndrome Inferior vena cava syndrome Venous ulcer. Hypertensive heart disease Hypertensive emergency Hypertensive nephropathy Essential hypertension Secondary hypertension Renovascular hypertension Benign hypertension Pulmonary hypertension Systolic hypertension White coat hypertension.

Retrieved from " https: Uses authors parameter Use dmy dates from September Views Read Edit View history. This page was last edited on Thrombophlebitis Licht es Octoberat By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.

Inflammation Arteritis Aortitis Buerger's disease. Hypertension Hypertensive heart disease Hypertensive emergency Hypertensive nephropathy Essential hypertension Secondary hypertension Renovascular hypertension Benign hypertension Pulmonary hypertension Systolic hypertension White coat hypertension.

Thrombophlebitis Licht es

Pycnogenol is the US Thrombophlebitis Licht es trademark name for a product derived from the pine bark of a tree known as Pinus pinaster. The active ingredients in pycnogenol can also be extracted from other sources, Thrombophlebitis Licht es, including peanut skinThrombophlebitis Licht es, grape seed, and witch hazel bark. Pycnogenol is used for treating circulation problems, allergiesasthmaringing in the earshigh blood pressuremuscle soreness, pain, osteoarthritisdiabetesattention deficit-hyperactivity disorder ADHDa disease of the female reproductive system called endometriosismenopausal symptoms, painful menstrual periods, erectile dysfunction EDand an eye disease called retinopathy.

It is also used for preventing disorders of the heart and blood vessels, including strokeheart diseaseThrombophlebitis Licht es, and varicose veins. Pycnogenol is used to slow the aging process, maintain healthy skinimprove athletic endurance, and improve male fertility. Some people use skin creams that contain pycnogenol as "anti-aging" products. Pycnogenol contains substances that might improve blood flow. It might also stimulate the immune system and have antioxidant effects.

Some research shows that taking pycnogenol before allergy season begins might reduce allergy symptoms in people with birch allergies. Taking pycnogenol daily, along with asthma medicationsseems to decrease asthma symptoms and the need for rescue inhalers in children and adults with asthma.

Young people age years seem to be able to exercise on a treadmill for a longer time after taking pycnogenol daily for about a month. Taking pycnogenol by mouth seems to reduce leg pain and heaviness, as well as fluid retention, in people with circulation problems, Thrombophlebitis Licht es.

Some people use horse chestnut seed extract to treat this condition, but using pycnogenol alone appears to be more effective. Research suggests that taking pycnogenol improves mental function and memory in both young adults and the elderly. Disease of flebodia Uterus Varizen retina in the eye.

Taking pycnogenol daily for 2 months seems to slow or prevent further worsening of retinal disease caused by diabetesatherosclerosisor other diseases. It also seems to improve eyesight. Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder ADHD. Taking pycnogenol by mouth does not seem to help ADHD symptoms in adults, Thrombophlebitis Licht es.

However, taking pycnogenol daily for one mouth appears to improve symptoms in children. Clogged arteries coronary artery disease. There is some evidence that taking mg of pynogenol three times daily for 4 weeks might help improve some complications associated with clogged arteries.

Blood clots in deep veins Tomaten in der Behandlung von Krampfadern vein thrombosis, DVT. There is some evidence that taking a specific combination product Flite Es ist besser für Krampfadern troksevazin oder venarus might help to prevent DVT during long-haul plane flights.

The product combines a blend of mg of pycnogenol plus nattokinase. Two capsules are taken 2 hours before the flight and then again 6 hours later. Also, taking pycnogenol mg before a flight, 6 hours after the flight, Thrombophlebitis Licht es, and the following day appears to reduce the risk of blood clots forming in the veins during long flights. Early research suggests that chewing Thrombophlebitis Licht es least 6 pieces of gum with added pycnogenol for 14 days reduces bleeding and prevents increased plaque.

Early evidence suggests that taking mg of pycnogenol daily for weeks slightly decreases blood sugar in people with diabetes. Foot ulcers due to diabetes. Early research suggests that taking pycnogenol by mouth daily and applying it to Thrombophlebitis Licht es skin heals ulcers related to diabetes. Circulation problems in diabetes. Early research shows that taking 50 mg of pycnogenol three times daily for 4 weeks improves circulation and symptoms in people with diabetes.

Early research suggests that taking mg of pycnogenol before a flight, 6 hours after the flight, and once the next day reduces swelling and ankle swelling, Thrombophlebitis Licht es. Limited research suggests that pycnogenol, used alone or in combination with L-arginine, might improve sexual function in men with ED. It seems to take up to 3 months of treatment for significant improvement.

Early research suggests that taking a specific combination of pycnogenol and coenzyme Q10 PycnoQ10 for 12 weeks improves some symptoms of heart failure. Early research suggests that taking pycnogenol by mouth, alone or in combination with a pycnogenol cream, improves quality of life and symptoms of hemorrhoids. Pycnogenol seems to lower "bad cholesterol" low-density lipoprotein LDL cholesterol. Pycnogenol seems to lower systolic blood Thrombophlebitis Licht es the top number in a blood pressure reading but does not significantly lower diastolic blood pressure the bottom number.

There is some evidence that taking mg of pycnogenol daily might decrease leg cramps. Early research shows that taking pycnogenol by mouth decreases menopausal symptoms, including tiredness, Thrombophlebitis Licht es, headache, depression and anxiety, and hot flashes. Early research suggests that taking pine bark extract Enzogenol by mouth in combination with vitamins E and C, daily for 3 months reduces the severity and likelihood of developing a migraine headache.

There is mixed evidence about the effectiveness of pycnogenol for osteoarthritis. Pycnogenol might reduce overall symptoms, but it does not seem to reduce pain or improve the ability to perform daily tasks Pain in late pregnancy. Early research suggests that taking 30 mg of pycnogenol daily reduces lower back pain, hip joint pain, pelvic pain, and pain due to varicose veins or calf cramps in the last 3 months of pregnancy.

Pelvic pain in women. There is early evidence that pycnogenol might help reduce pelvic pain in women with endometriosis or severe menstrual cramps. Improving symptoms of lupus SLE. Early research suggests that taking pycnogenol reduces symptoms of SLE in some patients. Ringing in the ears tinnitus. Early research suggests that taking mg of pycnogenol daily for 34 days reduces tinnitus symptoms. More evidence is needed to rate pycnogenol for these uses.

Pycnogenol can cause dizziness, gut problems, Thrombophlebitis Licht es, headache, and mouth ulcers. However, until more is known, pycnogenol should be used cautiously or avoided by women who are pregnant. There is not enough reliable information about the safety of taking pycnogenol if you are Thrombophlebitis Licht es. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.

Pycnogenol might cause the immune system to become more active, and this could increase the symptoms of auto-immune diseases. If you have one of these conditions, Thrombophlebitis Licht es, it's best to avoid using pycnogenol. In theory, high doses of pycnogenol might increase the risk of bleeding in people with bleeding conditions.

In theory, high doses of pycnogenol might decrease blood sugar too much in people with diabetes. Pycnogenol might slow blood clotting. There is some concern that it might increase the chance of bleeding during and after surgery. Stop using pycnogenol at Thrombophlebitis Licht es 2 weeks before a scheduled surgery.

By increasing Forum Krampfadern Laser-Behandlung immune system pycnogenol might decrease the effectiveness of medications that decrease the immune system.

The following doses have been studied in scientific research: For asthma in children: For diseases of the retina, Thrombophlebitis Licht es those related to diabetes: Behandlung von Krampfadern, Sklerotherapie Preis mild high blood pressure: For improving exercise capacity in athletes: Reducing the risk for stroke and heart infarction with pycnogenol.

Eur Bull Drug Res ;7: Solar ultraviolet-induced erythema in human skin and nuclear factor-kappa-b-dependent gene expression in keratinocytes are modulated by a French Maritime pine bark extract. Free Radic Biol Med ; Schmidtke I, Schoop W, Thrombophlebitis Licht es. Schweizerische Zeitschrift fur GanzheitsMedizin ;3: Vitamin E supplementation improves endothelial function in type I diabetes mellitus: J Am Coll Cardiol ; Spadea L, Balestrazzi E.

Treatment of vascular retinopathies with pycnogenol. Stanislavov R, Nikolova V. Treatment of erectile dysfunction with pycnogenol and L-arginine. J Sex Marital Ther ; Effects of Mirtogenol on ocular blood flow and intraocular hypertension Thrombophlebitis Licht es asymptomatic subjects.

J Atten Disord ;6: Tixier JM, et al. Evidence by in vivo and in vitro studies that binding of pycnogenols to elastin affects its rate of degradation by elastases. Cramps and muscular pain: Procyanidins extracted from pine bark protect alpha-tocopherol in ECV endothelial cells challenged by activated RAW Ferulic acid excretion as a marker of consumption of a French maritime pine Pinus maritima bark extract. The effect of pycnogenol on the microcirculation, platelet function and ischemic myocardium in patients with coronary artery diseases.

Reduction of cardiovascular disease risk factors by French maritime pine bark extract. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled exploratory study to evaluate the potential of pycnogenol for Thrombophlebitis Licht es allergic rhinitis symptoms.

A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial on the effect of Pycnogenol on the climacteric syndrome in peri-menopausal women. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand ; Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Thrombophlebitis Licht es extracts in vitro and in ground beef. Effects of plant extracts on microbial growth, color change, and lipid oxidation in cooked beef. Clinical assessment of a supplement of Pycnogenol R and L-arginine in Japanese patients with mild to moderate erectile dysfunction.

Pine bark extract reduces platelet aggregation.

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